Plessy V. Ferguson
In 1896, the United States Supreme Court issued a ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson that set the standard for racial segregation for decades to come. The foundation of the case is rooted in 1890, when the state of Louisiana passed a legislation known as the Separate Car Act; this mandated segregated accommodations for black and white passengers on train cars. Two years later, Homer Plessy boarded the train car that was designated for whites only. Because he was legally considered an octoroon - that is, a person with one-eighth of his ancestry being African American - he was arrested for violation of the state mandate.
Upon Plessy's initial trial, his lawyers challenged the constitutionality of the state law; when he was found guilty, the ruling was appealed to the Louisiana Supreme Court. After he was again found guilty, the case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court. In May 1896, the Supreme Court upheld Plessy's conviction, saying that even though the Fourteenth Amendment ensured there was legal equality for blacks and whites, it did nothing to require that any other form of separation, social or otherwise, be eliminated. The power to determine whether a law was reasonable, they claimed, fell to the individual states due to their "police powers." The case made it clear that "equal, but separate accommodations for the white and colored races" was perfectly justifiable in American society, giving rise to the "separate but equal" doctrine that ensured the creation and continuance of racial segregation throughout the nation for decades to come. It would not be until 1954, in the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas that the "separate but equal" doctrine would be overturned.
Related Research Paper Topic Suggestions
African American Family - African American Family Research Papers discuss a sample of a paper order on how to order an observation paper, with specific questions to answer on the topic.
African American History - African American History research papers look into the experience of African Americans since the founding of the British colonies to the Civil Rights movement and beyond.
African American Women - African American Women Research Papers examine the impact that women had on the advancement of all African Americans, particularly the
Afroamerican Studies - Afro-American Studies Research Papers on an interdisciplinary field of research and writing that focuses on politics, cultures, and histories of African American people.
Black Americans - Uniqueness of the Back American Research Papers delve into examining and defining African American culture including history, development, and distinguishing characteristics.
Black Churches - Research papers on Black Churches examine the churches that serve the African American community.
Black Church History - Research papers on Black Church history discuss how the African American church came to be after the institution of slavery.
Black English - Black English Research Papers look at this language which rooted from when the African Americans were forced over to America to become slaves.
Black History - A research paper on Black History discusses this important component of culture that aims to preserve the traditional narratives of black culture.
Black Studies - Black Studies essays examine the interdisciplinary academic subject that combines elements of the history, culture and politics of African Americans.
Choose A Major Historical Event - Choose a Major Historical Event research papers choose any one group or major historical event to illustrate how people, places and/or events have been interrelated and impacted. History research papers are available at Paper Masters.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. research papers overview his life and examine his beliefs in essays such as Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
Integration of Schools - Integration of Schools Research Papers look at the 1950's society, and the African American's fight for desegregation of schools.
Jim Crow Laws - Jim Crow Laws research papers discuss the law that imposed severe restrictions on African Americans, including limits on their individual rights and strict segregation laws.
Letter From A Birmingham Jail - Letter From A Birmingham Jail research papers outline the very skillful and expressive letter from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Long Hot Summers of The 1960S - Long Hot Summers of the 1960's Research Papers discuss the civil rights riots that occurred through the years 1964-1969.
Malcolm X - Malcolm X Research Papers examine the life of this man, and his distrust and rage toward white Americans. He became known as " the angriest black man in America."
Million Man March - Million Man March research papers overview the gathering of African American men at the National Mall in Washington, D.C. to present a different view of African Americans.
NAACP - NAACP research papers examine one of the oldest civil rights organizations in the United States.
Praying For Sheetrock - Praying for Sheetrock Research Papers look at a book by Melissa Fay Greene about racial discrimination.
Racial Segregation - Racial Segregation research papers discuss the division of society according to ethnic identity or the color of one’s skin.
Rosa Parks - Rosa Parks research papers discuss this key figure in the civil rights movement.
Segregation In Schools - Segregation in Schools research papers discuss Jim Crow laws that were legally upheld by the US Supreme Court in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X - How to write research on the Autobiography of Malcolm X as told to Alex Haley is overviewed by Paper Masters.
The Scottsboro Boys - The Scottsboro Boys Research Paper explores the trial of nine black men in the south during the 1930's, and their unfair trial.
Title Vii - A research paper on Title VII examines one of the 11 Titles of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that outlaws discrimination.
Warriors Dont Cry - Warriors Don't Cry Research Papers delve into an autobiography on the integration of African American students into white schools.
W.E.B. Du Bois - W.E.B. Du Bois research papers look at this African American scholar and compares him to others of the past such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Custom Written History Research Papers can be found at Paper Masters.