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Surnames Proposal

Surnames Proposal

Why Surnames are Changed? The use of surnames, or family names, is a relatively recent occurrence in the timeline of human existence. For the majority of this time, individuals were able to exist with only one name since lower population levels and limited travel prevented significant confusion between individuals with the same name from occurring. Have Paper Masters custom write research on surnames and focus on any aspect of this cultural tradition you need explored.

As a form of identification, the importance of a person's surname varies around the world.

  • Some countries, like Iceland, have no formal family names. In these countries, an individual's surname is typically the first name of their father.
  • The majority of countries around the world follow some type of patronymic system of surnames. Most English speaking countries follow this pattern, with a child's name and lineage being traced back through the male members of his family.
  • A small number of aboriginal tribes in Africa, Canada, and the United States practice a matronymic system, where lineage and surnames are traced through the female members of the family.
  • In Spanish speaking countries, family names are often a hyphenated combination of both the father and mother's name.

The importance of an individual's surname also varies throughout the world. In many places in the Western hemisphere, the surname is used in formal interactions, while the first name is reserved for friends and family. In many Eastern cultures, the surname is used much more frequently, often being written before the individual's given name.

The concept of formal family names, or surnames, is relatively new within the timeline of human history. Early in man's history, most people were able to exist with only one name, but as large cities with dense population began to form, it became necessary to differentiate between various individuals who all carried the same name. Every culture had its own solution to the naming problem. The names of particular individuals were often expanded to include a reference to the individual's appearance, geographic location, occupation, or lineage. As time progressed, individual families began to become associated with one particular surname. The advent of massive censuses, first imposed by the ancient Greeks and Romans, were some of the first recordings to distinguish individuals by a formal surname. As this naming practice became more and more formalized, the individual's particular lineage became an important aspect of family names, with different cultures creating unique methods of passing down surnames from generation to generation. The end result of this solidified process still reflects numerous cultural differences, such as the use of occupation, personal characteristics, or geographical locations to initiate a particular family name, which created such a diverse naming process.

Despite the historical significance of the use of surnames, individuals around the world frequently change their names for a variety of unique reasons. I find this variety of reasons to be both compelling and intriguing. This topic interests me because it reflects the tremendous diversity within our society by displaying how different ethnicities transfer names from generation to generation. The topic of changing surnames also interests me because it shows the unity of mankind since so many people around the globe are often changing their names for many of the same reasons. Finally, one of the primary reasons for individuals changing their names is to escape racial discrimination associated with the ethnicity of their name. This idea is also of interest to me because it seems so ridiculous and counter to my personal beliefs that a person's name could actually affect the amount of discrimination that they personally experience.

  • Research Methods (8-14 pages)

    A. Research Design:

    • Research question (yes, again)
    • Overview of the type of design you are using details, such as the following (as appropriate) experimental intervention OR assignment of experimental groups OR type of survey OR whatever it is you are doing procedures to be used for collecting data (in detail) rationale for design you have chosen time schedule finalize/select sample pretest/revise measurement instrument collect data, data analysis report, writing budget

    B. Variables & Measurement:

    • Definitions of all major concepts & variables being measured operational definitions of all study variables sample question or two for any "fuzzy" variables concept/variable/measurement chart (Figure 4)

    C. Sample Design & Procedures:

    • Name/description of the population of interest name & empirical description of the working population type and size (N) of sample (to be) drawn specific procedures to be used to select sample rationale for sample design & procedures

    D. Data Analysis:

    • Preliminary analysis
    • Coding & cleaning of data
    • Calculating scales/indices
    • Reliability (Croneback's alpha)
    • Examination of distributions
    • Description of sample
    • Variables to be use for the description
    • Relevant statistics to be used
    • Comparisons to population (if feasible)
    • Hypothesis testing
    • Restate hypotheses
    • Statistics to be used
    • Level of probability to retain hypothesis draft of a major analysis table (without numbers) (Figure 5) figure/table summarizing hypothesis tests (if complex) (Figure 6) elaboration of findings (optional) ideas for getting more out of your data

    E. Human Subjects:

    • Potential risks to participants in your study procedures for protection of participants' rights

    F. Limitations of the Study:

    • Acknowledge major limitations of proposed study damage control for each limitation explain steps taken to minimize problem explain why problem not all that dreadful (if true) give rationale for proceeding despite problem
  • Literature Cited (1-2 pages) This is mandatory if you hope to pass the course!
    list of references using a standard format

    A. Appendix (optional, but might help your grade; no page limit)

    • Questionnaire (partial revision of earlier draft)
    • Anything else that might support the proposal


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