Smallpox Research Papers
Smallpox research papers are custom written and should include the points listed below. Have our writers custom write your medical health research paper on the disease smallpox.
Your research study will want to analyze the infectious disease small pox. The study should accomplish the following:
- Define and analyze the disease
- Identifying and describing the causative microorganism in smallpox
- The characteristic symptoms of the disease
- The populations affected
- It should also describe the typical course and outcomes of infection and the options for treating and preventing smallpox.
- Explore why, after several decades in which smallpox appeared to have been conquered globally, the disease has recently reemerged as a major source of concern for public health experts and policymakers.
Smallpox is an extremely contagious and potentially lethal infectious disease. The causative microorganism in smallpox is the variola virus, a relatively stable virus that remains infectious for at least several hours in most natural environments, unless exposure to ultraviolet light or direct sunlight occurs . Variola virus belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus—the largest and most complex viruses that infect humans—and shares many fundamental features common to other orthopoxviruses. The linear genome of the double-stranded DNA variola virus contains some 200 genes. Like other orthopoxviruses, variola possesses the unusual ability to replicate in the cell cytoplasm with little help from the nucleus. The genes in the central region of the genome encode proteins that are involved in the replication of the virion structure, while genes in the flanking regions encode proteins that work to alter the intracellular and extracellular environments, in order to render them more favorable to the replication and spread of the virus.
The various members of the genus Orthopoxvirus appear to be of ancient origins and cause skin lesions in several mammalian species. Scientists believe that the present widespread distribution of the orthopoxviruses among diverse species of reptiles, bird, insects, and mammals indicates that the present-day viruses probably descended from microorganisms that infected early life forms. Although humans are now the only vectors of smallpox , scientific research indicates that the virus might have originally been introduced to humans via cross-species transfer from an animal host that has since become extinct. The virus that is nearest in DNA sequence to variola is camelpox virus, which is the causal agent in a smallpox-like disease in camels and appears to have evolved from a common ancestor within relatively recent times. Camelpox remains endemic in southwest Asia, and epidemiological investigations indicate that smallpox probably arose in the same region. Since the variola virus produces short-term infections only in human hosts and fosters durable immunity in those patients who recover, smallpox depends on the existence concentrated human populations, making it likely that the disease probably first emerged after humans began to congregate in ancient Near Eastern cities.