Sister Callista Roy
In 1976 Sister Callista Roy published her first book on nursing theory entitled, “Introduction to Nursing: An Adaptation Model”. In 1984, Sister Callista Roy polished her nursing theory and modified her book. In 1994, she published a related book entitled, “The Roy Adaptation Model: The Definitive Statement”. The Roy Adaptation Model is defined as “the process and outcome whereby the thinking and feeling person uses conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration.” Essential elements of this adaptation are considered to be the person receiving nursing care, adapting nursing goals to any change, health, environment, and the facilitation of adaptation. All of these elements are interrelated and modes of adaptation are necessary to address these elements.
Within the clinical practice area, the adaptation model is particularly well suited for the primary nurse. The primary nurse model includes extensive contact with the patient on a day-to-day basis. Sister Callista Roy’s nursing theory requires individual assessment, intervention and evaluation of the patient and this is best accomplished outside the guise of team nursing or counterproductive short term nursing contacts.