Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the standard text offering criteria for the classification of various mental disorders. First published in 1952, it has gone through several editions, with the most recent, the DSM-V being published in 2013.
Health professionals across the United States and around the world rely on the DSM to determine a patient's diagnosis. The DSM grew out of earlier attempts to collect statistical evidence regarding various mental disorders. This effort expanded greatly during World War II, when psychiatrists were instrumental in the selection, assessment, and treatment of soldiers. After the war, the APA began developing a standard reference work, which resulted in the DSM-I, published in 1952. DSM-II appeared in 1968, listing 182 mental disorders, including homosexuality as a mental disorder. This was removed in the 1974 seventh printing of the DSM-II.
DSM-III appeared in 1980, widely expanded to include the latest research and understanding of mental disorders. DSM-III listed 265 diagnostic categories, and was widely hailed around the world. DSM-IV was published in 1994; listing 297 disorders over 886 pages. The latest version, DSM-5, came out in 2013, deleting many subtypes of schizophrenia and grouping Autism diagnoses together as "Autism Spectrum Disorder."