Erik Erikson Stages
Erik Erikson, a famed psychologist, developed his theory of psychosocial development as an eight-stage process through which the human beings pass from infancy to adulthood through the successful resolution of various identity crises. While mastery of a stage is not essential to development, unsuccessful completion may result in later problems. Paper Masters can compose a custom written research paper on Erik Erikson Stages that follows your guidelines.
- The first stage, between birth and two years, is characterized by the crisis between trust and mistrust. This is where the person's basic needs must be met. Mistrust can lead to later antisocial behavior.
- The second stage, between 2 and 4, is one of autonomy versus self-doubt and shame. This is when the child begins to explore the world.
- Stage three, between 4 and 5 years, revolves around the conflict of whether the individual can act in the wider world, between initiative and guilt.
- Stage four, between 5 and 12 years, is one of industry versus inferiority. Self-confidence is built in the secondary school years.
- The fifth stage occurs during adolescence development and is a question between identity and role confusion. This is where the individual transitions into adulthood, finding their sexual identity among other aspects.
- Young adulthood brings about stage six, with the crisis between intimacy and isolation. The crisis peaks around age 30, by which time many people have forged relationships with a spouse.
- Stage seven, of middle adulthood, involves bigger questions of the value of life, with the crisis between Generativity and stagnation.
- The final stage, that of late adulthood, is one of reflection, the ego identity versus despair for lost opportunities.
Erickson's stages of development are best utilized within the context of early childhood education. Because many of the changes that take place in this timer period are governed by highly observable behavior, Erickson's theories are well utilized in shaping activities that are age and gender specific.