Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) is considered to be one of the greatest rationalists of the 17th century, whose work paved the way for the Enlightenment of the 18th century. His Ethics is considered to be his magnum opus, and one of the most important tomes in European philosophy.
Spinoza's family had immigrated to the Netherlands following the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492. Born and raised in Amsterdam, Spinoza had a traditional Jewish upbringing, although he began studying under a former Jesuit at the age of twenty, who introduced the young man to modern philosophy, especially the writings of Descartes. Spinoza research papers have been written by philosophy experts. We can produce a custom written project following your guidelines.
His developing personal philosophy soon saw him branded as a heretic by the Jewish authorities in Amsterdam, and in 1656, the community shunned him. For the rest of his life, Spinoza earned a living as a private scholar.
During the 1660s, he began writing his Ethics, considered to be one of the greatest philosophical treatises in European philosophy. Spinoza carried on correspondence with many of the leading thinkers of his day, such as:
- Gottfried Leibniz
- Christiaan Huygens
Spinoza also began making a living by grinding lenses for telescopes and microscopes, and his lenses were highly sought by scientists of his day. Spinoza's philosophy was highly controversial, for he argued that God was impersonal and abstract, famously stating that God was Nature and Nature was God.