Critique of Pure Reason
Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is considered to be one of the most influential and important works of philosophy. It is also considered to be among the most difficult books to actually read. First published in 1781, and revised for a second edition in 1787, it largely refuted many notions proposed by David Hume.
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Basic Ideas of Kant in The Critique of Pure Reason
Hume, among other philosophers, believed that a priori knowledge needed to be analytic. In other words, what is stated must be independent from experience. Hume was a rationalist who believed that effects could be deduced from the cause. Kant, in Critique of Pure Reason, believed that cause and effect could be discovered without empirical knowledge, and that analytic reasoning could not reveal anything that was already not self-evident.
In Critique of Pure Reason, Kant held the following constructs:
- Space and time are forms of perception
- Causality is a form of knowledge.
- The cognitive abilities of the individual help to structure what is known.
- Kant maintained that for anything to be known, it must be experienced.
Main Elements of The Critique of Pure Reason
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is divided into two main parts:
- The Doctrine of Elements
- The Doctrine of Method.
The Doctrine of Elements, among other ideas, argues that space and time are pure intuition of the human senses. Kant also believed that the Ideal of Pure Reason was God.