Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper
As described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a childhood disorder that is characterized by ongoing anger-fueled disobedience. Oppositional defiant disorder is far more severe than typical, normal adolescent defiance. Paper Masters can compose a custom written research paper on oppositional defiant disorder that follows your guidelines.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
According to the DSM-IV, there are eight signs and symptoms of ODD, and a diagnosis can be made whenever a child exhibits four of them. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, they are:
- Active refusal to comply with majority requests
- The performance of actions deliberately intended to be annoying,
- Anger and resentment of others
- Frequent arguing
- Blaming others for one’s own mistakes
- Frequent loss of temper
- Spiteful or vengeful behaviors
- Easily annoyed
Such a pattern of behavior will lead to behavioral problems in the school setting.
Causer of ODD
The causes of ODD are not known, although children of alcoholics and parents with frequent encounters with law-enforcement are known to have an 18% greater chance of developing ODD in early childhood. Reinforcement of negative behaviors, whether intentional or not, merely serves to sustain the negative behaviors of children with ODD. Various types of therapy, including cognitive-behavioral and family therapy, have proven effective in treating ODD. However, the best course of treatment is generally individually tailored to meet the needs of the specific child.