Paper Masters custom writes research papers on circumcision to be used in various courses at the college level. Medical health classes, nursing courses and sociological studies all investigate the phenomena of circumcision. Both male and female circumcision research papers can be ordered from Paper Masters.
In American culture, male circumcision has become an accepted part of medical practice.Although many argue that the practice is more cosmetic than medically necessary, new statistics show that males who are circumcised incur few health risks than those who are not. From reducing the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS for the male and reducing the incidence rate of cervical cancer for a man's female partner, the practice of circumcision has effectively proven itself to more than just a cosmetic procedure. In spite of the recent research which suggests that circumcision carries with it a number of health benefits, state and local health agencies, in an attempt to cut back on expenses, have begun to terminate public funding for circumcisions. As a result, several states have now classified the procedure as cosmetic rather than medical.
What is perhaps most interesting about the practice of male circumcision is that it is a procedure that is widely accepted all over the globe. According to one author globally, approximately 25 percent of all men are currently circumcised. In Jewish and Islamic communities, the circumcision is performed as a religious ritual while in Africa male circumcision is performed on adolescents as a coming of age rite. While the controversy over the medical necessity of this procedure intensifies in the United States, it long history and ties to both religious and cultural rights will continue to make it part of medical practice.
In stark contrast to the widely accepted practice of male circumcision stands the practice of female circumcision. Although the practice has been a long standing custom in both Arab and African countries, as one author notes: "Female circumcision (FC) or female genital mutilation (FGM) represent a traditional practice that is well known to have serious and hazardous health and social consequences on the female". Although the practice often varies from region to region, there are three types of female Circumcision that are seen most commonly:
- Intermediate Circumcision
- Paraonic Circumcision
The main difference between the three is the amount of mutilation that is perpetrated on the external female genitalia.
Female circumcision can be so dangerous for women that death can result. Often performed by untrained women in unsanitary conditions, FC has also recently been recognized as a possible cause for the rampant spread of AIDS in many Third World countries. As a result of the health risks for women, and the population in general, the United Nations has outlawed the practice imposing severe fines on governments that sanction the practice.