Second Hand Smoke Exposure
Topic: Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Development of Respiratory Problems in Children.
Suggestions for a Second Hand Smoke Exposure Research Paper:
This clinical project will document in APA manuscript format the identification, investigation, and proposed solution for a problem identified from advanced nursing practice in the student's specialty area. This includes thoroughly critiquing appropriate literature.
- Problem Identification: Identify a health problem/topic of interest or concern related to rural health nursing. Provide rationale to support the problem/topic identified.
- Review of Literature: Information Quality- Relevant to topic, sufficient in number, reflects use of primary sources, recent- within the last five years or seminal in nature, reflects current knowledge, valid, reliable and scientific in merit.
- Critical Analysis: Synthesizes evaluations of literature, which includes evidence based research, into a logically structured analysis of the subject as a whole. The synthesis should illustrate the problem and suggest solutions. The synthesis may also identify gaps in knowledge, inconsistencies, or unanswered questions.
- Implications for advance practice nurses: specifically and creatively applies knowledge gained from the review of literature to advance practice nursing.
This is the specific instructions on what the paper should contain for Second Hand Smoke Exposure Research Paper:
- Problem Identification: Clearly and concisely identifies a clinical problem with a well developed rationale to support problem identified. Clearly establishes significance for nursing (particularly nurse practitioners).
- Review of literature: All sources are highly relevant to the topic. Includes both conceptual and data based knowledge. Includes a sufficient number of resources (especially data based sources) to reflect a thorough and comprehensive review of the literature. Uses primary sources. Demonstrates current knowledge. Evidences thorough use of computers/online information systems.
- Review of literature: Draws accurate conclusions about the studies. Synthesizes individual critiques int a logical analysis of the literature as a whole that clearly identifies new knowledge and new approaches from the body of knowledge on the topic. Thoroughly identifies gaps in knowledge, inconsistencies in the literature, and unanswered questions for the topic.
- Application: Clearly and concisely reflects the application of new ideas/new approaches synthesized and developed from the critical analysis. Includes highly relevant implications for nursing practice, education, research and suggestions for further research. All areas are thoroughly covered. Implements an approved project to thoroughly address a problem/topic based on highly relevant utilization of knowledge from the review of literature. Implications for practice synthesized from the literature are clearly evident.
Tobacco smoke produces a toxic mixture of numerous chemicals, many of which are life-threatening carcinogens. These compounds, including nicotine, are absorbed into the secondarily exposed person's system, just as they are in the smoker's system. The longer the person is exposed secondarily, the higher he is for developing life-threatening illnesses, just like the mainstream smoker. Although dangerous to everyone, second-hand smoke is most toxic to children, including fetuses, neonates, infants, young children, and adolescents. This is because their brains and lungs are still undergoing many developmental changes, and damage during this time can be irreparable. Additionally, second-hand smoke can cause chronic lower respiratory illnesses, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis, aggravate preexisting sinus and ear infections, prolong illness, and lead to behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder (ADD) in young children.
Children are most vulnerable, but we are all at risk. Though not strictly an American pastime, smoking cigarettes is a habit shared by roughly 30% of adults living in the U.S. alone. Smoking cigarettes, for example, harms almost every organ in the body. In spite of increased individual and government awareness and action, tobacco continues to be the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. In fact, since such a high number of people smoke some form of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, pipes) on a regular basis, those who do not partake directly stand a statistically high chance of being exposed to second-hand smoke by an acquaintance, coworker, friend, or family member. One study showed that just 30 minutes of exposure to second hand-smoke causes the same cardiovascular health problems in the non-smoker as those encountered directly in the smoker. Second hand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke, contaminates the surrounding air with as many as 4,000 hazardous compounds, more than 250 of which are carcinogenic. Second-hand smoke assaults the senses by causing a displeasing odor, staining fabrics and burning the exposed eyes. Health hazards associated with second hand smoke exposure include, but are not limited to, lung and other organ cancers, emphysema, asthma, general respiratory ailments, heart disease, and circulatory problems. Also, it can aggravate already-existing problems such as diabetes and cystic fibrosis. In fact, studies have shown that second hand smoke can even cause damage to DNA, since it crosses the lung cell membranes. Roughly 20-50% of smokers live with children, and 70% of these smoke inside the home. Often, we are not aware of the presence of second-hand smoke, or any lingering toxins such as carbon monoxide. This is especially true for children, who may likely encounter residual smoke chemicals in public places such as bowling alleys, restaurants, day care centers, schools and even grocery stores. For children who live with smokers, avoidance is not an option. They must endure chronic exposure to an unseen, intangible danger, which will have a negative impact on their future health. This is especially heinous, given the fact that they will endure exposure, oblivious to any harmful consequences, because they trust and rely on their parents. Long-term consequences that these children may suffer include the aforementioned ailments, but are likely more complex in the developing child. This may be because of slower lung development, which is correlated with second-hand smoke exposed children relative to children of nonsmokers. Some frightening statistics indicate that there are between 150,000 and 300,000 serious lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, in children younger than 18 months of age per year, which result in roughly 7,500 to 15,000 hospitalizations each year.