This is a research paper topic outline on Diabetes. The research describes potential factors that may contribute to the need for more medical and health research into the problem. Our writers at Paper Masters want to help you succeed in your medical health career. Therefore, we give you tips on how to write a research paper on diabetes. Your research paper will want to include the following information to fully cover the disease of diabetes.
- Describe at least 3 determinants or factors that affect the incidence of diabetes in an individual, such as:
- Discuss how these factors may contribute to the problem of diabetes.
- Include in the research paper a brief description of exactly what diabetes is
- Describe the population group affected
- Give statistics on the number of people affected by diabetes
Diabetes, at its simplest explanation, is a condition in which the body cannot metabolize food properly. Normally, food is processed when the body converts it to sugar and it enters the bloodstream. The pancreas produces insulin which is needed for the sugar to enter cell tissue where is then converted to energy. People with diabetes are either unable to produce insulin or cannot use it properly (insulin resistance).
Your review of diabetes will want to explain many important issues of the illness, such as the following:
- The disease will be described, including how diabetes affects the body.
- The causes of diabetes and risk factors will be discussed.
- A discussion of diet for the purpose of disease management will be included.
- Research regarding cures for diabetes, both type I and type II.
Description of Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is the form where the pancreas does not produce insulin. It was formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes. Ten percent of sufferers have this form. People with this form must obtain a synthetic form of insulin. They either receive it from a shot or from an insulin pump. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas does make insulin. This form was previously named non insulin-dependent diabetes mettitus or maturity-onset diabetes. However, it may not produce enough. In other cases, the body does not use it properly. This is known as insulin resistance. People with type 2 diabetes may need to take diabetes pills or insulin. In some cases it can be managed with exercise and a meal plan.
People with type 1 diabetes usually are not overweight. They are often diagnosed prior to age 35. This acute illness often starts suddenly and results in frequent urination, increased thirst and appetite, rapid weight loss, and fatigue. Type 2 diabetes is chronic in that it starts slowly. It is often diagnosed after age 40 and sufferers are usually overweight. Symptoms may be blurred vision, slow healing for cuts, numbness in extremities, recurring infections in the mouth or bladder or on the skin. Symptoms of type 1 are also experienced by people with type 2.
This disease affects several organs. The process noted above will be explained in more detail. Most of what we eat is either forms of carbohydrates or proteins. The process of digestion breaks them down into glucose and amino acids, respectively. These are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. This causes blood glucose levels to rise sharply. The pancreas is then signaled by beta cells to secrete insulin. This chemical is at its highest level ten minutes after eating. Insulin allows glucose and amino acids to enter muscle, liver and other cells. The brain and nervous system are not insulin-dependent. The liver stops producing glucose when insulin levels are high but instead stores it until insulin levels drop. Four hours after a meal both blood glucose and insulin levels are low. Several organs are affected by diabetes. In type 1, beta cells have been destroyed. Blood glucose cannot enter cells and is instead dumped into urine. The liver and muscles are damaged when they are not supplied with sugar.
Research on Disease Management for Diabetic
Diet plays a role in both the prevention and management of the disease. A ten-year study has recently shown that strict control of blood sugar levels for diabetes patients can reduce long-term complications, and slow the onset and progression of the illness. The American Diabetes Association recommends the use of a specific food pyramid that addresses the dietary needs of diabetics. Similar to the standard food pyramid, the largest group is grains, beans and starches. Diabetics need to eat servings from each group, except the fat, sweets, and alcohol group, every day. However, the number of servings per group depends on the diabetes goals, calorie and nutrition needs, the patient's lifestyle and food preferences. Diabetics are encouraged to make small changes over time.
Everyone, including diabetics, should eat whole grains, beans and starchy vegetables such as peas, corn, potatoes and winter squash. These have little fat or cholesterol. Vegetables are full of vitamins and minerals and give fiber. Fruit is confusing for diabetics because it is full of glucose. However, fruit is a carbohydrate, similar to bread. The juice in fruit may have a different effect on an empty stomach or depending on what medication the diabetic is taking. People with the illness should examine how fruits affect their bodies. They are important for vitamins and minerals but probably should be taken in moderation. Milk does not negatively affect a diabetic. Protein should be taken in greater quantities than the general public. Diabetics should eat between ten and 20 percent of their calories as protein. Table sugar does not affect a diabetic any more than other carbohydrates such as potatoes or pasta. However, sugar does not contain necessary vitamins and minerals. In summary, diet can be used to manage the disease, but extreme measures do not need to occur. A healthy diet with a little more protein is sufficient.
Scientists believe that a cure for diabetes is possible. These cures, however, cannot be conducted through diet alone. Possibilities include transplanted beta cells or development of specialized cells from stem-cell research. Researchers in Australia explored the idea of genetically engineering liver cells to imitate the function of normal beta cells in the pancreas. The human insulin gene would be implanted in the genome of liver cells. Those cells could then synthesize, process and store insulin. The key is to create a system that is not rejected by the patient's immune system. A gene therapy solution such as this would be permanent
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