Acute Myeleoid Leukemia
Acute Myeleoid Leukemia is a cancer of the blood which is heterogenous in nature, making it rather difficult to consistently treat. Acute Myeleoid Leukemia is characterized by a differentiation block at the promyelocytic stage and by a reciprocal translocation affecting chromosomes 15 and 17. As such, Acute Myeleoid Leukemia has not received as much attention as acute myeloid Leukemia, and had not, until relatively recently, received the kind of research necessary to find effective treatments. Paper Masters can compose a custom written research paper on Acute Myeleoid Leukemia that follows your guidelines.
According to Cancer.org, this rare Leukemia had been universally fatal until 1985. Since that point, this rare form of cancer has experienced a significant boost in research and treatment. Your research paper will examine the chromosomal abnormalities which make up Acute myeloid Leukemia. The point of your research paper is to provide a greater level of understanding into this form of cancer.
Acute Myeleoid Leukemia
In this type of Acute Myeleoid Leukemia, bone marrow cells that should mature into certain types of white blood cells become arrested while still immature. This occurs when the gene responsible for retinoic acid receptors (RAR), which modulate cellular development and differentiation, dislocates and becomes attached to a different chromosome. This cancer is associated with:
- Abnormal bleeding in the skin
- Bleeding in the renal and gastrointestinal tracts
- Blood in the retina.
This abnormal bleeding can also occur in the brain and has been identified as the cause of death of 10-40% of patients with acute promyelocytic Acute Myeleoid Leukemia . As such, this disease had, as was mentioned previously, been incurable or untreatable until the introduction of ATRA treatments.
Acute Myeleoid Leukemia Abnormalities
Acute promeylocytic Acute Myeleoid Leukemia is characterized by molecular abnormalities along the receptors of chromosomes 15 and 17. At is chromosomal base, acute promyelocytic Acute Myeleoid Leukemia is associated with "chromosomal translocations involving the RAR locus. In 99% of acute promeylocytic Acute Myeleoid Leukemia cases, RAR is fused to the PML gene [which regulates hemopoletic differentiation and controls cell growth and tomorigenesis], leading to the production of a PML-RAR [Alpha] chimeric protein". Acute promyelocytic and Acute Myeleoid Leukemia cells contain reciprocal translocation involving the long arms of both chromosomes, which is found in nearly all cases of APL. [The translocation involves the retinoic acid receptor [alpha] gene on chromosome 17 and the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) gene on chromosome 15 . As the PML gene is, in effect, disabled, tumors are able to form and grow unchecked in the acute promeylocytic Acute Myeleoid Leukemia patients. PML is needed for the RA-dependent transactivation of the gene which regulates cell cycle progression and cellular differentiation . When PML is disabled, the body is unable to suppress tumors. The effect also is a reduction in the blood's ability to coagulate which makes patients more susceptible to bruising, lengthy periods of bleeding, and greater danger from injuries in general.