Similar in its principles to logical positivism, logical empiricism is a philosophical movement that focuses on empiricism and the role that the scientific method can play in reshaping society as a whole. However, there is no clear set of principles or beliefs that make up the movement of logical empiricism. Interestingly enough, even the application of the principles of empiricism itself are not fully agreed upon by philosophers that adhere to this movement. Individuals within this movement often disagree on the best form of empiricism to utilize, for example. However, one core belief is the idea that logic and mathematics play an instrumental role in understanding society and philosophy.
Though the movement’s name was coined by Otto Neurath, an Austrial economist and sociologist, key figures in logical empiricism include A.J. Ayer, the author of Language, Truth, and Logic, a book that serves as the foundation for the philosophy for many English speakers. Rudolf Carnap was a leader of the logical empiricism movement in the Vienna Circle, while Walter Dubislav was a founder of the Berlin Society of Empirical Philosophy. Though each of these individuals held differing beliefs about logical empiricism, their primary goal was the same: to create a philosophy that enabled them to understand the relationship between science and society, using empirical research to provide proof and validity to this relationship. In doing so, they would create a connection between logical positivism, neopositivism, and scientific empiricism that provided an entirely new insight into the natural world and how we as a society interact with it.