Julius Caesar Biographical Overview
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Julius Caesar was born in the year 100 BC in Rome, Italy, died therein in 82 BC at the knives in hands of assassins who presided in the defunct Senate beneath Caesar after he had self-proclaimed himself the dictator of Rome in 44 BC. Caesar came from Rome's high society Julian family - his mother had noble lineage and his uncle, Gaius Marius, rose to power in Rome's Senate as consul and a successful general in Rome's army.
Throughout his political, military, and governmental official career alighting him to dictator of Rome, Caesar became adept at using his Populare ideology to curry his popularity with the people of Rome, as well as marrying for money and prestige three times, in order to gain his political and personal advantages in life. Caesar married for prestige and money in his first marriage, securing a position of authority in Rome's government as a High Priest.
However, when Sulla - of the opposite Optimate ideology - declared himself dictator of Rome, Caesar was stripped of his official duties and forced to relinquish the dowry he received from his marriage. Caesar left Rome broke and joined the military as an officer garnering a reputation as a warrior and hero. After Sulla's death, Caesar returned to Rome as a lawyer, his first wife died, and he married deceased Sulla's wealthy granddaughter. This union brought him more prestige and authority - enough be able to cultivate a relationship with politically and socially influential Pompey the Great, and Rome's wealthiest man, Marcus Crassus - to whom Caesar became substantially indebted both financially and politically - after Caesar was elected to High Priest.
Caesar's Early Years
Caesar was appointed as governor of Hispania, a Spanish province of Rome and while in Spain, Caesar (already divorced from his second wife, rose in fame for his leadership skills). Caesar then returned to Rome as a consul to the Senate - marrying for the third time to a wealthy and powerful Populare Senator's daughter. The relationship formed an alliance which came to be known by today's historians as The First Triumvirate, and the three men prevailed in influence over Rome's government with Caesar successfully changing laws to oppose the Senate Optimates and favor Senate Populare goals - this is the beginning of the silent war between Caesar and Rome's Optimate Senate. The three men of the First Triumvirate were:
Sensing pending punishment from the Senate Optimates should his consul position end, and in need of more money and prestige, Caesar left Rome with his military forces in search of province conquests resulting in wealth. Caesar's quest began with his taking the province and wealth of Gaul, threatening a Germanic invasion, and invading the British Isles in the process. Caesar's connections in Rome, meanwhile, dissolved - Crassus died and Pompey had come into sole military and political power in Rome by aligning with the Optimate Senate which had Caesar's governorship of Spain (and Caesar's self-appointed governorship of Gaul) terminated, ordering Caesar back to Rome as a private citizen - Caesar faced prosecution for illegal conduct while he was consul of the Senate.
Caesar and Pompey
Undeterred by Rome's wrath, Caesar and his dedicated troops crossed the Rubicon on mounts with Caesar in the forefront and marched on Rome - an act of war - leading Pompey and his army to retreat eventually to Egypt where he was killed. Caesar and a small force went to Egypt in search of Pompey and, when learning of his death, demanded reparations. Egypt refused and, when denied, Caesar forcibly took the royal palace and remained trapped by Egyptian Achilles until Rome's reinforcements arrived six months later - this is the time period in which Caesar took up his infamous affair with Egypt's exiled Cleopatra VIII. After Caesar's defeat of the Egyptians, Caesar went on to defeat the remaining Optimate forces. He then returned to Rome and self-appointing himself dictator of Rome. The Rome Senate acquiesced to Caesar's will and granted him the title of Dictator Perpetuus.
Caesar thereafter ruled Rome without input from the defunct Senate, implemented what is now known as the Roman Calendar, created a police force, abolished the tax system, and ordered the rebuilding of Carthage. Caesar's death was the tragic result of his rivals' that he would eventually abolish Rome's entire Senate.