Pedagogical Theory and Education
So much have the teaching methods commonly seen within the American public education system changed over the last hundred years that it is likely that a nineteenth-century educator would have difficulty comprehending the theory or practice of currently accepted pedagogical techniques. Even throughout much of the first half of the twentieth century, teaching methods focused upon rote memorization, achieving uniformity, and the commercialization of education. Eventually The philosophy of education evolved into today's theories.
Pedagogical Theory and Curriculum
Decades of pedagogical theory have gradually compelled a paradigm shift in regard to curriculum development. Today, the majority of teacher education curricula emphasize a process-over-product approach especially in gifted student classes. Even a cursory review of the latest textbooks in the field reveals a strong accentuation on assisting students in the process of attaining the desired results, rather than defining the perfect end product.
Paradoxically, however, the trend towards process-oriented pedagogical theory has paralleled the movement towards accountability testing in many American public schools. These types of high-stakes tests, upon which grade promotion, teacher retention and salary, and even school funding often depend, can be construed as the ultimate validation of a product-oriented teaching philosophy.
There are many theorists that have made contributions to the theory of Pedagogy. The major ones are: